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Balchem Research Summary

Deposition of and performance responses to Zn from three organic sources fed to broiler chickens in the presence of cottonseed hull diets containing gossypol.

A summary of a study conducted by M. D. Sims*1 and M. J. de Veth2, 1Virginia Diversified Research Corp.,Harrisonburg, VA, 2Balchem Corp.,New Hampton, NY.

 

Objective

To evaluate the response (weight gain, feed efficiency, mortality) of broilers to dietary supplementation with inorganic Zinc (Zn) as Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) or three different organic Zn sources in the presence of two dietary antagonists (phytate and gossypol) from cottonseed hulls (CSH). Antagonists negatively impact Zn absorption in monogastrics. Organic Zn sources, if highly bioavailable, can overcome the effect of an antagonists on Zn absorption.

 

Treatments

  • ZnSO4 no antagonist (PCON) - 40 ppm Zn from ZnSO4, no antagonist.
  • Basal Zn with antagonist (NCON) - no added Zn, antagonist added.
  • ZnSO4 - 40 ppm Zn from ZnSO4, antagonist added.
  • KeyShure® Zinc - 40 ppm Zn from KeyShure Zinc, antagonist added
  • Availa-Zn - 40 ppm Zn from Availa-Zn, antagonist added.
  • Mintrex Zn - 40 ppm Zn from Mintrex Zn, antagonist added.

 

Diets and Birds

Diets: Single-phase 20% Protein, ME = 1400 kcal/lb, 9.9% fat – corn/soy diet, naturally adequate for all minerals (except Mn and I which were added) and then supplemented with appropriate Zn source at 40 ppm.

Birds: Straight-run Cobb x Ross broilers (1 to 42d of age). Housing consisted of 48 – 4’ X 4’ floor pens with 25/birds/pen.

Measurements

  • Body weights by pen at 28d and 42d of age (Figure 1)
  • Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) at 28d and 42d (Figure 2)
  • Bone Zn (Femurs) at 28d and 42d (Table 1)
  • Total Mortality (Table 2)

 

Results

Figure 1. 42d Body weights of treatments compared to PCON treatment. PCON value was set to 100% (ideal standard ration with no anatagonist and adequate Zn).

  • The Antagonist depressed broiler growth by 14% vs. PCON diet.
  • Supplemental ZnSO4 could not counteract the antagonist. Broiler weight was reduced 13% on this diet.
  • Feeding supplemental Zn from the organic trace mineral, KeyShure Zinc, - reversed the effects of the antagonist. Similar growth rates were observed on PCON and KeyShure Zinc diets.
  • Zn provided by Availa-Zn and Mintrex Zn was not as effective in counteracting the antagonist. Broiler growth was depressed by 7% and 9% (P<0.05) respectively on these treatments, as compared to PCON.

Figure 2. Feed conversion rates (FCR) compared to PCON. PCON value was set to 100% (ideal standard ration with no anatagonist and adequate Zn).

  • The antagonist depressed FCR by 16% vs. the PCON diet.
  • Supplemental ZnSO4 could not completely reverse the affect of the antagonist. FCR for ZnSO4 was depressed by 8% vs. PCON.
  • Feeding supplemental Zn from KeyShure Zinc was able to reverse the effect of the antagonist on FCR. FCR was similar for PCON and KeyShure Zinc broilers.
  • Feeding supplemental Zn from Availa-Zn and Mintrex Zn was not as effective at counteracting the effect of the antagonist on FCR. FCR was similar for Availa-Zn, Mintrex Zn and ZnSO4.

 

Commercial Implications

The difference between Zn sources is amplified in the presence of an antagonist. Organic trace minerals, because of their higher bioavailability than the inorganic trace mineral source, permitted the birds to achieve better growth and feed conversion. The KeyShure Zinc treatment was the most bioavailable organic trace mineral source because it was able to counteract the antagonist, allowing the birds to obtain the greatest body weight at 42d of age with improved FCR.

Solubility at pH 2 and 5: Solubility of each product at concentrations ranging from 0.125 mg/mL up to 12.5 mg/mL were evaluated in buffers at pH 2 and pH 5.

 

KeyShure Zinc Advantages

Body weights: KeyShure Zinc treatment had the largest 42d body weights (p < .05) vs. all other antagonist-containing treatments. KeyShure Zinc birds had 42d body weights comparable to PCON birds.

42d Adjusted Feed Conversion Ratio (lb/lb): KeyShure Zinc and PCON (positive control) treatments had similar feed conversion ratios (1.690 and 1.661, respectively) and were both more efficient than the other treatments.

Cost Analysis: KeyShure Zinc birds had higher (p < .05) rate of net return/broiler marketed over feed costs ($2.182) than broilers fed Availa-Zn ($1.996) or Mintrex Zn ($1.963) with a monetary difference of $0.19 and $0.22 per bird, respectively.

 

Table 1: Bone Zn Levels (ppm)
Group 28-d 42-d
PCON 176.48a 120.69a
NCON 123.20d 99.94b
ZnSO4 159.15b 110.56a
KeyShure® Zinc 154.65bc 115.75a
Availa-Zn 165.10b 113.64a
Mintrex Zn 142.65c 112.73a
SEM 7.5984 2.8280
  • Highest bone Zn concentrations were observed at 28d and 42d in the PCON group.
  • Availa-Zn and ZnSO4 had greater (p < .05) femur Zn at 28d than Mintrex Zn. At 28d and 42d, KeyShure Zinc femur Zn levels were similar to Availa-Zn, Mintrex Zn and ZnSO4.

 

Table 2: Mortality (%)
Group 28-d 42-d
PCON 3.50a 4.00a
NCON 13.00bc 14.00b
ZnSO4 20.50c 23.50c
KeyShure® Zinc 11.00bc 11.50b
Availa-Zn 11.50bc 12.50b
Mintrex Zn 12.50bc 14.00b
SEM 0.0221 0.0255
  • Highest bone Zn concentrations were observed at 28d and 42d in the PCON group.
  • Availa-Zn and ZnSO4 had greater (p < .05) femur Zn at 28d than Mintrex Zn. At 28d and 42d, KeyShure Zinc femur Zn levels were similar to Availa-Zn, Mintrex Zn and ZnSO4.